Cultivating a New Tomorrow

Endocannabinoid System

The Endocannabinoid System

The endocannabinoid system (ECS) helps to provide and improve homeostasis – a state of balance and stability – within living organisms. While this system is a natural feature of humans and other mammals, its structure is complex. Through a “lock-and-key” signaling system, the ECS impacts various physiological systems by orchestrating communication among the body’s enzymes, receptors and cannabinoids.

What Constitutes a Cannabinoid?

The term “cannabinoids” refers to organic chemical compounds present in Cannabis. Technically, a plant-based cannabinoid is referred to as a phytocannabinoid. There are also lab-manufactured, synthetic cannabinoids. Few people realize that the human body produces cannabinoids, too; these are known as endocannabinoids.

Making Sense of Signals and Structure

Basic ECS structure includes three essential elements: receptors, lipids and enzymes. Following is a brief description of each, which helps to illustrate how they work together:

Receptors

Researchers at the St. Louis University School of Medicine discovered the cannabinoid receptor in 1988. Today we know of two types of cannabinoid receptors: CB1 and CB2. (Both are also G protein-coupled receptors.) CB1 receptors are found mainly in the brain and central nervous system, while CB2 receptors are located in peripheral organs.

Lipids

Two lipids produced by the body serve as ligands (bonding agents) for the cannabinoid receptors: anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG). Both are endocannabinoids.

Enzymes

Enzymes (including monoacylglycerol lipase and fatty acid amide hydrolase) create endocannabinoids.

Receptors at Work: Balancing Acts

CB1 and CB2 receptors create chemical signals to produce and dissolve metabolic enzymes. In turn, the enzymes influence a variety of physical and psychological conditions, including inflammation, appetite, pain, metabolism, muscle control, sleep, intra-ocular pressure, stress response, mood and weight loss, among others. CB1 and CB2 differ in their functions and balance points.

CB1

CB2

Bottom Line: More Therapeutic Options for Patients and Practitioners

Since its discovery about 30 years ago, the ECS has opened new vistas of beneficial therapeutic options for patients and physicians alike:


Sources:
NORML: Introduction to the Endocannabinoid System
http://norml.org/library/item/introduction-to-the-endocannabinoid-system

National Institutes of Health: The Endocannabinoid System as an Emerging Target of Pharmacotherapy
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2241751/